Vaccines are one of humanity’s most important inventions as they help protect public health and save millions of lives every year. By stimulating the body’s immune system to elicit an immune response, vaccines have protected people from deadly diseases such as smallpox, rinderpest, and malaria, among others. Traditionally, vaccines are made from weak or inactivated forms of pathogens. Bacteria and viruses in this state are unable to reproduce or reproduce poorly, making them unable to cause disease. Once they are introduced into a patient, the body’s immune system kicks in, attacking the pathogen and creating memory B cells in the process that help protect against a similar attack in the future. Over the years, advancements in technology have enabled scientists to develop vaccines using the genetic material of viruses and bacteria. Today, these next generation vaccines using recombinant proteins have been utilized to create more effective shields against deadly diseases and protect public health.